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Muhammad Ahsan Shah
Irfan Ashraf Manj
Junaid Naseer
Khayyam Anjum
Shahid Hafeez
Hafiz Masood Ahmad
Talha Faridi


Birds and Rodents can cause significant damage to grain stores in developing countries, affecting the food security and income of small-holder farmers. Methods for assessing storage losses by rodents under small-holder conditions will help farmers and policy makers understand the impact rodents may have on food security, nutrition, and health. The present study aimed to determine the different damage patterns by birds and rodents in grain storage in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. The study was conducted between August 2021 and February 2022. Twelve grain stores were selected for the observations based on environmental conditions and storage types. Damage patterns were observed through scan sampling by directly observing the damage patterns in terms of grain spreading, fecal contamination, hair contamination, packaging injuries, and feather presence. For loss assessment, the Bowls with known quantities (about 2kg) of grains were placed within grain storage and periodically monitored for weight loss, fecal contamination, and percentage of birds and rodent- damaged grains. The bowels were weighted before and after rodents or bird attack and difference in weight were used to calculate percentages losses. Grain spreading was observed as main damage pattern by birds. Its percentage was measured as 68%, followed by fecal droppings (14%), packaging injuries (13%), and feather presence (5%). Rodents main damage pattern was also grain spreading (47%), followed by packaging injuries (23%), fecal droppings (20%), and presence of hair (10%). Estimates of grain losses in the absence of measures were 23.1% annually. These losses were reduced when rodent control was implemented. So, by implementing control methods and propers storage strategies and using good quality packaging material the rodents and birds losses can be reduced.

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Muhammad Ahsan Shah, Irfan Ashraf Manj, Junaid Naseer, Khayyam Anjum, Shahid Hafeez, Hafiz Masood Ahmad, & Talha Faridi. (2023). DAMAGE PATTERNS OF DIFFERENT BIRDS AND RODENT SPECIES IN GRAIN STORAGES IN BAHAWALPUR, PAKISTAN. Agricultural Sciences Journal, 5(2), 28–37. https://doi.org/10.56520/asj.v5i2.270
Research Articles